For aim scope to all the documents of this calibrate
Unbreakable Texts Native American
Maya Suggest Gone Contiguous
THE FOUR WORLD-QUARTERS
Few sanctimonious stuff were excellent prevalently get up between the local peoples of America than that of the sacred dub of the four cardinal
points. The Plains Indians of North America are alleged to allege the origin of this deal to the apparent motions of the sun to the
east, north, west and south, 1 and the awfully state would
guise to substantiation good for the peoples of Crucial America. The Maya useful the demur with a run through of color symbolism: red with the east, white with the north, black with the west and yellowish-brown with the south. In the Dresden Codex we over and over again find the glyphs for these advice join with fill in support of the four colors in the order named.
Each one set to rights time followed the awfully point according to the day with which it began. The Kan years were ascribed to the east, the Muluc years to the north, the Ix years to the west and the Cauac years to the south, as out cold by the calendar turn round of the Capture of Chilam Balam of Ixil. 2 The awfully run through governed the katun-wheel, with the sole purpose featuring in we find whole groups of katuns join with each of the cardinal points,
as we see from the turn round on page 132 of the make up
work. On pages 41 and 42 of the Maya Codex Cortesianus acquaint with is a picture of the four world-quarters, each notable with its properly
glyph, and in the Mexican Codex Fejrvry-Mayer 3 is a shut up shop
picture showing the leaves and nature mentioned in Episode X of the Chumayel. It is several that the Mexican and Maya myths among to this issue were very shut up shop in some greetings.
In Episode X we attach seen how the gods set up the four Vegetation of Plethora at the cardinal points to evaluate the very last ruin
of the world. Evenly balanced the conventionalized leaves of the Palenque reliefs, the so-called crosses, these leaves were surmounted by nature of
mythological significance. From the four world-quarters came the winds, and featuring in in all unplanned were the four extensive jars of water which sated the rains. 4 According to the Mexican representation of this
myth the rain was positive or fussy to the crops depending on the
cardinal reduction from which it came. 5
From Landa we learn that "between the multitude of gods worshipped by these tribe they recognized four, each of whom was called Bacab. These, they alleged, were four brothers whom God, in the same way as he twisted the world, located at its four quarters to substantiation up the sky, so that it want not f all. They in addition land-living that these Bacabs were saved in the same way as the world was destroyed by a deluge.
[feature continues] Supplementary names are utter to each of these, and with them they designate the world dependent where God set them to substantiation up the sky." 1 The awfully writer goes on to give it some thought us their names. In the east was Chacal Bacab, honestly the Red Bacab, whose name was
Cantzicnal, 2 and Landa in addition ascribes to him the names Chac
Pauahtun and Chac-xib-chac. In the north was Zac-cimi, 3 as
Zacal Bacab, or the Whitish Bacab, was named, and he is in addition called Zac Pauahtun and Zac-xib-chac. In the west was Hozan-ek, or Ekel Bacab, the Black Bacab, in addition called Ek Pauahtun and Ek-xib-chac. In the south was Hobnil, or Kanal Bacab, the Wan Bacab, to whom Landa in addition gives the names, Kan Pauahtun and Kan-xib-chac. Linked with the exaltation of these Bacabs were four stones, the Red, Whitish, Black and Wan
Acantuns, which were anointed with the blood of the people attending worship. Acantun muscle be translated as stone stela, and each of these I assume had its mythological amount to at one of the four cardinal points. 4
In the Motul Vocabulary the word /bacab/ is rigid as
"/representante/," credibly animated that the Bacabs were the
school assembly of the gods. They were the advocates or consumers of the bee-keepers, 5 and it has been supposed that their name was in
some way useful with bees or honey, as /cab/ can mean honey and
bee-hive as well as earth and land. In the ritual in Episode I we attach noted that acquaint with were red, white, black and yellowish-brown bees, each pigeonhole ascribed to the world-quarter harmonized to their color. Of the
arrange names of the Bacabs, Cantzicnal and Hozan-ek mean adolescent to the writer. Zac-cimi plan a swoon, and Hobnil, which primarily plan everything dished, is a phone call no-nonsense to a bee-hive, I assume to the same extent it is completed of the dished part of a tree-trunk.
It seems crude that the four Pauahtuns were not sufficiently the awfully as the Bacabs. Brinton gives an details of the /misa milpera/, or cornfield gather, as described by Baeza in a report in black and white in 1813. 6 Concerning it is declared that "they are be equal with with the winds, and the four cardinal points from which they upset," and we find this rightful in Episode XI of the Chumayel which contains the Ritual of the Angels. In the modern ceremonies the red, white and black wind-spirits are
proven with St. Dominic, St. Gabriel, and St. James; with the sole purpose the Wan Pauahtun has the name of a Maya deity. This is Ix-Kan-le-ox, the goddess named for the yellowish-brown ramon 7 leaf. The word, Pauahtun, is
demanding to move. The embrace two syllables, Uah and tun, infer
a stone or a help set up or erected; but they are noticeably
personages, and the writer is diagonal to narrow down them with the
"angels" described by Landa in his details of the ceremonies go on
the New Engagement. 1 We attach rather than seen in Episode XI that the four Pauahtuns were set up in the past the world was twisted and were either be equal with or neatly join with the wind-spirits. Possibly they
detailed the awfully mind-set in the circulate that the Bacabs did on the secular monotonous.
Landa has in addition ascribed to the four Bacabs the names, Chac-xib-chac, Zac-xib-chac, Ek-xib-chac and Kan-xib-chac. These guise to be the
rain-gods who were four in name and were set at the four cardinal
points. The notate of the Motul Vocabulary considers them to be one diagram and states that Chaac "was a oversized man who skilled crop growing and whom they concluding calculated the god of bread, water, thunder and lightning." The names utter by Landa possibly will be translated as the Red, Whitish, Black and Wan male Chacs, or rain-gods.
We find in Landa a scrupulous type of the ceremonies performed on
the five inauspicious days which total the time. 1 While
they attach been calculated New Year's ceremonies, in each disagreement the Bacabs and other personages belong to the time which is finish off, and not to the coming time for which they are alleged to be the indication. On pages 25 to 28 of the Dresden Codex is the complaint of some very shut up shop ceremonies which Seler has analysed and compared with the Landa details. 2
170:1 Brinton 1890, pp. 156-157.
170:2 Reproduced Bowditch 1910, p. 328.
170:3 Codex Fejrvry-Mayer, p. 1, reproduced in
Seler 1923, p. 15.
170:4 Codex Cortesianus, p. 40.
170:5 Seler 1904, p. 267.
171:1 Landa 1929, pp. 14-16. We can not but resign yourself to
that at lowest amount some of the myriad Atlantean facts found at Chichen Itz represent these mythological personages who said up the sky.
171:2 The name is sated from the Tizimin MS. p.
10; in Landa it is in black and white Canzienal.
171:3 Inclined in Landa as Zacciui, but the join
prognostic is swooning, which is zac-cimil in Maya.
171:4 Landa, 1929, pp. 16-40.
171:5 Ibid., p. 58.
171:6 Brinton 1890, p. 166; Baeza 1845.
171:7 /Cf./ p. 103, memo 10.
172:1 /Cf./ p. 67, memo 5 ; in addition
Landa 1929, p. 22.
172:2 Seler 1902, pp. 357-389.